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Distance Education Glossary


Also included in the Guidelines is a glossary of terms used in the system to identify terms that are used in the delivery of distance education.

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ACCESSIBILITY: In Web pages, it refers to the ability of a Web page to be viewed by everyone, especially people with disabilities who use various assistive technologies. Accessible Web pages take into account the special needs of visitors with auditory, visual, mobility, and cognitive impairments and give those users an equivalent browsing experience to that of non-disabled visitors.

ACCOMMODATION: Academic accommodations vary depending upon the documented needs of the individual student and are based on the demonstration that an accommodation is reasonable and necessary to improve the direct impact of a substantial limitation on a major life function.

ADA (AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT): Enacted July 26, 1990. The ADA prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, State and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, and transportation. It also mandates the establishment of TDD/telephone relay services. The Department of Justice enforces the ADA═s requirements in three areas --

Title I: Employment practices by units of State and local government

Title II: Programs, services, and activities of State and local government

Title III: Public accommodations and commercial facilities

ALTERNATE FORMAT: Translation of information into a variety of accessible formats including Braille, large print, ASCII text, audio cassette, captioning, electronic text and more.

ALTERNATIVE KEYBOARD LAYOUT: Allows people who experience difficulty with conventional keyboard designs to use computers. The products available range from key guards that prevent two keys from being pressed simultaneously, to alternative keyboards with differing layouts, sizes, etc. for people who have specific needs, to alternative input systems which require other means/methods of getting information into a computer.

ALTERNATIVE MOUSE SYSTEM: Alternative pointing devices are used to replace the mouse. Includes trackballs and other pointing devices.

ALTERNATE TEXT (ALT Text): Descriptive text included in IMG tags that appears when the mouse is held over the image. The text should provide a concise alternative description of the image or image map that will make sense when heard through a screen reader.
Include ALT text in your code like this: <img src="robot-image.gif" alt="Old NetMechanic Robot Logo!">

As defined by the Assistive Technology Act of 1998, the term refers to "any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities."
Assistive technologies include: screen readers and magnifiers, closed captioning, alternative keyboards, and other special software and equipment that makes information devices more accessible. Also referred to as "Adaptive Technology."

Conditions where people are completely deaf or hard of hearing. They require visual representations (captions or transcripts) of information contained in audio files.

ANALOG: A signal that is received in the same form in which it is transmitted, while the amplitude and frequency may vary. An example is a modem, which is used to convert the digital information in your computer to analog signals for your phone line and vice versa, to convert analog phone signals to digital information for your computer.

ANTENNA: The device that sends out and/or receives signals from the satellite. Also referred to as a satellite dish.

AMPLITUDE: The amount of variety in a signal. Commonly thought of as the height of a wave. American Standard Code for Information Interexchange (ASCII): A computer language used to convert letters, numbers, and control codes into a digital code understood by most computers.

ASYNCHRONOUS: Communication in which interaction between parties does not take place simultaneously.

ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION MODE (ATM): A method of sending data in irregular time intervals using a code such as ASCII. ATM allows most modern computers to communicate with one another easily.

AUDIO BRIDGE: A device used in audio conferencing that connects multiple telephone lines. Audio conferencing: Voice only connection of more than two sites using standard telephone lines.

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A primary communication path connecting multiple users.

BANDWITH: The amount of spectrum a communication channel (analog or digital) uses, measured in hertz (Hz).

BAND: A range of frequencies between defined upper and lower limits.

BINARY: A computer language developed with only two letters in its alphabet.

BIRD: The nickname for a satellite.

BIT: Abbreviation for a single binary digit.

BOBBY: Software package available for use online or through download that evaluates Web pages for accessibility mainly to visually impaired users. Sites that pass are entitled to display the "Bobby Approved" icon. However, that icon does not mean that those sites also comply with all of Section 508's accessibility requirements. Download Bobby at the

BRAILLE: is a system of touch reading and writing for the blind, which employs embossed dots evenly arranged in quadrangular letter spaces or cells.

BRAILLE DISPLAY: Assistive technology that raises or lowers dot patterns based on input from an electronic device such as a screen reader or text browser.

BYTE: A single computer word, generally eight bits.

BROADBAND: A term used to refer to high-speed communication networks that are designed to handle bandwidth-intensive applications.

BROADCASTING: To transmit the same information to multiple receivers simultaneously over a satellite system, radio/TV station, data communications network or e-mail system.

BROWSER: Software that allows you to find and see information on the Internet.

C-BAND: Refers to the frequency in the 3.4 GHz to 7GHZ range. Portions of this band are dedicated to satellite communications. Satellite downlinks are 3.7 to 4.2 GHz.

CACHE: A place to store something temporarily. Web pages you request are stored in your browser's cache directory on your hard disk. When you return to a page you've recently viewed, the browser gets it from the cache rather than the original server, saving you time and the network additional traffic. You can usually vary the size of your cache, depending on your practical browser.

CACHE SERVER: A server relatively close to Internet users and typically within a business enterprise that saves (caches) Web pages and possibly FTP and other files that all users have requested. The cache server rather than the Internet can satisfy successive requests for these pages or files. A cache server not only gets information more quickly but also reduces Internet traffic.

: A text transcript of the audio portion of a video file that synchronizes the text to the action contained in the video.

CAPTIONING TYPES: See Distance Education: Access Guidelines for Students with Disabilities, Appendix III (Off-line captioning, Realtime Captioning, Closed captions, Open captions, Closed caption decoder, Roll-up and Pop-On captions, and Captioning Service Providers)

COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS: It includes individuals with general processing difficulties (developmental disabilities, brain injury, etc.), people with very specific types of deficits (short term memory, inability to remember proper names, etc.), learning disabilities, language delays, and more.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU): The component of a computer in which data processing takes place.

CHANNEL: The smallest subdivision of a circuit, usually with a path in only one direction.

CODEC (COder/DECoder): Device used to convert analog signals to digital signals for transmission and reconvert signals upon reception at the remote site while allowing for the signal to be compressed for less expensive transmission.

COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: A system for sending and receiving voice, video and data electronic information.

COMPRESSION: Reducing the amount of bandwidth needed to transmit video or audio by digitizing an analog signal, thus increasing the ability able to load multiple services on a satellite transponder

COMPRESSED VIDEO: When video signals are downsized to allow travel along a smaller carrier.

COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI): Teaching process in which a computer is utilized to enhance the learning environment by assisting students in gaining mastery over a specific skill.

COURSE SESSION: Used in Management Information System reporting to indicate the separate records on a section of a course that distinguishes when a part of the section is scheduled at a different time, on different days, in a different facility, or with several instruction methods.

COURSEWARE: Educational software and materials (such as programs) for a distance education course.

CYBERSPACE: The nebulous ˝placeţ where humans interact over computer networks. Coined by William Gibson in Neuromancer.

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Direct Broadcast Satellite. A service that uses satellites to broadcast multiple channels of television programming directly to small dish antennas.

A device used to unscramble encrypted or "scrambled" television signals

Videoconferencing on a personal computer.

DIAL-UP TELECONFERENCE: Using public telephone lines for communications links among various locations.

DIGITAL: A quantification scheme that allows the conversion of analog information into bits of data. Digitization allows for signal compression and for maintaining signal integrity.

DIGITAL VIDEO INTERACTIVE DVI): A format for recording digital video onto compact disc allowing for compression and full motion video.

DESCRIPTIVE NARRATION: Aids blind and visually impaired viewers with descriptive narration of key visual elements of video programming, including descriptive information on scenery, action, expressions/movements and costumes/props - everything that will give the viewer a better ˝pictureţ of what is happening.

DISTANCE EDUCATION - Instruction in which the instructor and student are separated by distance and interact through the assistance of communication technology.

DISTANCE EDUCATION COURSE: The delivery of instruction and separation of the student and instructor that utilizes one or a combination of technologies 51 percent or more of the time is considered a Distance Education course/section/session.

DISTANCE LEARNING: The desired outcome of distance education.

DOWNLINK: The transmission of radio frequency signals from a satellite to an earth station.

DOWNLOAD: Using the network to transfer files from one computer to another.

DSL: A telecommunications line that provides a fast, permanent connection to the Internet. DSL uses the copper wiring found in almost every home and office. Special hardware attached at both ends of the line allows data to transmit at a far greater speed than standard telephone wiring can.

EARTH STATION: A ground-based antenna and associated equipment used to receive and/or transmit telecommunications signals via satellite.

ECHO CANCELLATION: The process of eliminating the acoustic echo in a videoconferencing room.

ELECTRONIC MAIL (E-mail): Sending messages from one computer user to another.

FACSIMILE (FAX): System used to transmit textual or graphical images over standard telephone lines.

FCC: Federal Communications Commission. The U.S. federal regulatory agency responsible for the regulation of interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

FEEDS: Device mounted at the focal point of the antenna that gathers signals reflected from the dish. Also a television signal source.

FIBER OPTIC CABLE: Glass fiber that is used for laser transmission of video, audio, and/or data.

FIFTY-ONE (51%) RULE: A course/section or session is defined as DE if technology is used 51 percent or more of the time required to deliver instruction during the course term and where the student and instructor are separated by distance.

FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP): A protocol that allows you to move files from a distant computer to a local computer using a network like the Internet.

FIREWALL - A specially programmed computer system that "stands" between an organization's LAN and the Internet. It is a security measure used by many companies to prevent hackers and other unauthorized users from accessing internal networks. The firewall computer is set up to monitor traffic and to keep unauthorized crackers from tampering with the system, thereby protecting a private network from a public network. Firewalls are also set up to protect the security of servers.

FOOTPRINT: The coverage area of the earth's surface within which the signals of a specific satellite can be received.

FREQUENCY: The rate at which a signal (e.g. electrical current) alternates. The standard unit of frequency is the hertz, abbreviated Hz. If a signal completes one cycle per second, then the frequency is 1 Hz; 60 cycles per second equals 60 Hz.

Hz: Hertz. The name of the basic measure of frequency with which an electromagnetic wave completes a full cycle from its positive to its negative pole and back again. Each unit is equal to one cycle per second.
KHz: Kilohertz. Refers to a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 Hertz.
MHz: Megahertz. Refers to a frequency equal to one million Hertz.
GHz: Gigahertz. Refers to a frequency equal to one billion Hertz.

A collection of information on the basics of any given subject, often used on the WWW.

FULLY INTERACTIVE: > A variety of distance education in which the technology employed provides an immediate opportunity for exchange between participants.

FULL MOTION VIDEO: Signal which allows transmission of complete action taking place at the origination site.

FULLY INTERACTIVE VIDEO: (Two way interactive video) Two sites interact with audio and video as if they were co-located.

GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT: An orbit 22,300 miles above the earth's equator where satellites circle at the same rate as the earth's rotation.

Greenwich Mean Time. The time zone that includes Greenwich, England is bisected by zero degrees longitude. This is the time notation that is used for booking international satellite time.

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Location where cable television systems collect and distribute satellite programming.

HOME PAGE: A document with an address (URL) on the world wide web maintained by a person or organization which contains pointers to other pieces of information.

HOST: A network computer that can receive information from other computers.

HYBRID COURSE: A course utilizing more than one mode of instructional delivery. Instruction may be delivered by such modes as, the internet, email, video, audio and face to face meetings.

HYBRID SATELLITE: A satellite that carries two or more different communications payloads (i.e. C-band and Ku-band).

HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML): The code used to create a home page and is used to access documents over the WWW.

HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP): The protocol used to signify an Internet site is a WWW site, i.e. HTTP is a WWW address.

HYPERTEXT: A document which has been marked up to allow a user to select words or pictures within the document, click on them, and connect to further information.

INCLINED ORBIT: A condition that occurs when a satellite is no longer station-kept in the north-south plain. A satellite operator might do so to extend the life of a satellite because fuel will only be used to perform station-keeping in the east-west plain. The inclination happens gradually over time, and once it becomes excessive, the satellite is de-orbited.

INDEPENDENT STUDY: A broad category of courses for which state reimbursement is based upon number of units of credit rather than amount of student attendance. For apportionment purposes, distance education is one variety of independent study.

INTERACTION: A back-and-forth dialog, using communication technology, between the user and the system.

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FIXED SERVICE (ITFS): Microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery.

INTERACTIVE MEDIA: Frequency assignment that allows for a two-way interaction or exchange of information.

INTERNET: The most important technological innovation of our generation, the Internet is actually a network of networks. Originally designed by the U.S. Department of Defense so that a communication signal could withstand nuclear war and serve military institutions worldwide, the Internet was first known as the ARPANet, the most robust communication technology. It is a system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data transfer and communication services, such as remote login, file transfer (FTP), electronic mail (e-mail), newsgroups, and the World Wide Web. The Internet greatly extends the reach of each connected computer network.

ITFS – Instructional Television Fixed Service (microwave transmission) – Microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery. FCC Regulations

ISDN: Integrated services digital network. A standard for the integrated transmission of voice, video, and data developed by the Consultative Committee on International Telephony and Telegraphy (CCITT).

JPEG: Joint pictures expert group. A subgroup of ISO, which has established international standards for the digital compression of still pictures.

Ka-BAND: Primarily used in satellites operating at 30Ghz uplink and 20 GHz downlink and is intended in support of future applications such as mobile voice. A portion of the RF spectrum located between 18 GHz and 31 GHz.

Ku-BAND: Refers to the frequency in the 12 GHz to 14 GHz range used in support of such applications as broadcast TV, DBS, and direct-to-home television.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK - LAN: A network that connects computers in a relatively small, predetermined area (such as a room, a building, or a set of buildings). LANs can be connected to each other over telephone lines and radio waves. Workstations and personal computers in an office are commonly connected in a LAN. This allows individual users to send or receive files and to share access to files and data. Each computer connected to a LAN is called a node.

Large print text is oversized print intended for use by the visually impaired.

LEARNING OBJECT: Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning. (David Wiley). Learning objects are digital resources, modular in nature, that are used to support learning. They include, but are not limited to, simulations, electronic calculators, animations, tutorials, text entries, Web sites, bibliographies, audio and video clips, quizzes, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, graphs, maps, charts, and assessments. They vary in size, scope, and level of granularity ranging from a small chunk of instruction to a series of resources combined to provide a more complex learning experience.

Low noise lookdown. An electronic part of a satellite earth station that is used to amplify the signal collected by the reflector and the feedhorn.

An e-mail program that allows multiple computer users to connect onto a single system, creating an on-line discussion.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN): Two or more local computers that are physically connected.

MAGPie: Media Access Generator. Tool that allows Web authors to add captions to three multimedia formats: Apple's QuickTime, the World Wide Web Consortium's Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) and Microsoft's Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange (SAMI) format. MAGpie can also integrate audio descriptions into SMIL presentations.

MCPC: Multi-channel per carrier. A signal comprised of multiple digital streams that are multiplexed into a single stream, which is then transmitted on single carrier. This is typically used combine multiple CDV signal into one.

MICROWAVE: Electromagnetic waves that travel in a straight line and are used to and from satellites and for short distances (i.e., up to 30 miles).

MOBILITY IMPAIRMENTS: Physical impairments limit movement and fine motor controls like walking, lifting, or using a mouse or keyboard. People with physical impairments often require adaptive or assistive technologies to use computers or navigate through Web sites

MODEM: A piece of equipment to allow computers to interact with each other via telephone lines by converting digital signals to analog for transmission along analog lines.

MOSAIC: An example of browser software that allows WWW use.

MPEG: MPEG the Moving Picture Experts Group, develops standards for digital video and digital audio compression. It operates under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization. The MPEG standards are evolving, each designed for a different purpose.

MULTIMEDIA: Any document which uses multiple forms of communication, such as text, audio, and/or video.

MULTI-POINT CONTROL UNIT (MCU): Computerized switching system which allows point-to-multipoint videoconferencing.

NAB: National Association of Broadcasters. A U.S.-based organization that fosters and promotes radio and television broadcasting. PanAmSat has a booth at the NAB trade show held once a year in Las Vegas.

NETSCAPE: An example of browser software that allows you to design a home page and to browse links on the WWW.

NETWORK: A series of points connected by communication channels in different locations.

NON-TEXT EQUIVALENT: Content provided through audio files, sign language, or other visual means to convey information to people with visual or cognitive disabilities.

ON-LINE: Active and prepared for operation. Also suggests access to a computer network.

ORIGINATION SITE: The location from which a teleconference originates.

PAYLOAD: Supports the primary mission of the satellite, the receipt and transmission of signals, and comprises systems that include receivers, multiplexers, high-powered amplifiers and signal processing.

POINT OF PRESENCE (POP): Point of connection between an interexchange carrier and a local carrier to pass communications into the network.

POINT-TO-POINT: Transmission between two locations.

POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT: Transmission between multiple locations using a bridge.

POLARIZATION: The orientation of a transmitted/received signal. Signals can have circular or linear polarization.

PPP: A software package which allows a user to have a direct connection to the Internet over a telephone line.

PROTOCOL: A formal set of standards, rules, or formats for exchanging data that assures uniformity between computers and applications.

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An electronic operation that is performed in the same timeframe as its real-world counterpart. For example, real time video transmission.

REAL TIME TRANSCRIPTION: Transcribers attend class and write the spoken word on a steno machine. This process instantly creates English text so that one or more hearing impaired students may not only see what is being said, but non-oral students can utilize the keyboard to ask questions.

SATELLITE TV: Video and audio relay station that orbits the earth. A complete satellite communications system also includes earth stations that communicate with each other via the satellite. The satellite receives a signal transmitted by an originating earth station and retransmits that signal to the destination earth station(s). Satellites are used to transmit telephone, television and data signals originated by common carriers, broadcasters and distributors of cable TV program material.

SCPC: Single Channel Per Carrier. A scheme in which only one signal is loaded on a carrier.

SCREEN MAGNIFIER: Software program that magnifies all or part of a computer screen to make the content visible to users with visual impairments.

SCREEN READER: Software that reads the content of a computer screen aloud. Screen readers can only interpret text content, so all graphic and multimedia must have alternative text descriptions using ALT text, captions, transcripts, or other methods.

SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCOL (SLIP) : Allows a user to connect to the Internet directly over a high speed modem.

SERVER: A computer with a special service function on a network, generally receiving and connecting incoming information traffic.

SIMPLEX OPERATION: Transmissions sent in only one direction of a telecommunications channel.

SLOW SCAN CONVERTER: Transmitter/receiver of still video over narrow band channels. In real time, camera subjects must remain still for highest resolution.

SPACE SEGMENT: A term that describes the portion of the total communications satellite system that is physically located in orbit around the earth.

The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in transmission of voice, data and television.

STREAMING: Streaming video is a sequence of "moving images" that are sent in compressed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer as they arrive. Streaming media is streaming video with sound. With streaming video or streaming media, a Web user does not have to wait to download a large file before seeing the video or hearing the sound. Instead, the media is sent in a continuous stream and is played as it arrives. The user needs a player, a special program that uncompresses and sends video data to the display and audio data to speakers. A player can be either an integral part of a browser or downloaded from the software maker's Web site.

SYNCHRONOUS: Communication in which interaction between participants is simultaneous.

SUN OUTAGE: When the sun passes behind a satellite in relation to the earth, and the sun's energy momentarily interferes with the satellite signals. Occurs two times each year during spring and fall equinox.

T-1: Refers to bit rate of 1.544 million b/s for the United States. The European E-1 transmission bit rate is 2.048 Mb/s.

T-3 (DS-3): A digital channel which communicates at a significantly faster rate than T-1.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS: The science of information transport using wire, radio, optical, or electromagnetic channels to transmit receive signals for voice or data communications using electrical means.

TELECONFERENCING: Two way electronic communication between two or more groups in separate locations via audio, video, and/or computer systems.

TELECOURSE: A video-based course which uses a fully integrated package of video instruction combined with instructional support materials (for example, a textbook, a student study guide, and a faculty resource guide). Telecourses are delivered in a variety of ways, including television broadcast.

TELEPHONE RELAY SERVICE: Telephone Relay Services (TRS) link people using a standard (voice) telephone with people using a device called either a Text Telephone (TTY) or Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD). This device generally consists of a keyboard and display screen. Calls are routed through a communications operator who has both sets of equipment and who acts as the intermediary between callers.

TELEPORT: Technical ground facility used for satellite communications. PanAmSat operates six domestic teleports: Atlanta, GA; Napa, CA; Fillmore, CA; Long Beach, CA; Castle Rock, CO; Homestead, FL; and Spring Creek, NY.

: A course which merges a telecourse (see above) with the internet, providing the addition of online content, instructional/learning activities, resource links, and instructor and student interaction.

TEXT EQUIVALENT: Text content that describes information on the screen that's contained in graphic, Flash, or other multimedia files. Text equivalent is often provided using captions, ALT text, or transcripts. The alternate text must convey the same function or purpose for the user with a disability as the non-text content does for others.

TEXT SPEECH SOFTWARE: Text-to-Speech software is used to convert words from a computer document (e.g. word processor document, web page) into audible speech spoken through the computer speaker. This differs from screen reader technology because it doesn't read any system information or alternative text descriptions.

TEXT TRANSCRIPT: A text description of information contained in audio files.

TTY: Most deaf people use a device called a TTY (also known as a TDD), which is a simple keyboard that connects to a telephone, often through an acoustic coupler. When two people communicate via TTY, each sees what the other is typing.

TRACKING: An earth station feature that allows for tracking inclined satellites.

TRANSMISSION COUNTROL PROTOCOL (TCP): A protocol which makes sure that packets of data are shipped and received in the intended order.

TRANSPONDER: A radio frequency path through a satellite with a specific bandwidth, uplink/downlink frequency and beam. Transponders can be sold in whole or can be segmented into smaller pieces of bandwidth.

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VIDEO STREAMING- Also known as "streaming media," it is the transmission of a media clip, over a network, so that it begins playing back as quickly as possible. Streaming is an Internet data transfer technique that allows users to see video and hear audio files without lengthy download times.

A teleconference including two-way video.

VIRTUAL EQUIVALENT: A mediated technology course that is regularly or irregularly scheduled and meets the criteria for section 58003.1 (a) (b) (c) can be considered comparable to a classroom-based course.

VISUAL IMPAIRMENT: Refers to conditions where people are blind, color blind, or have reduced vision capabilities. Often, these people will use assistive technologies like screen readers or magnifiers to help them use computers and navigate through Web sites.

VOICE RECOGNITION: Voice or speech recognition is the ability of a machine or program to receive and interpret dictation, or to understand and carry out spoken commands.

UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL): The address of a homepage on the WWW.

UNIVERSAL DESIGN: Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.

USABILITY: Refers to design features that make a product user friendly for the broadest number of users. For instance, Web sites with usability problems could be hard to navigate, difficult for disabled people to use, or have unclear instructions for use.

UPLINK: The transmission of radio frequency signals to a satellite from an earth station.

WAI: Web Accessibility Initiative, affiliated with the World Wide Web Consortium. Coordinates with organizations around the world to increase the accessibility of the Web through five primary areas of work: technology, guidelines, tools, education and outreach, and research and development. The developer of web content accessibility guidelines.

World Wide Web (WWW): A graphical hypertext-based Internet tool that provides access to homepages created by individuals, businesses, and other organizations.

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