Also included in the Guidelines
is a glossary of terms used in the system to identify terms
that are used in the delivery
of distance education.
ACCESSIBILITY: In Web pages, it refers
to the ability of a Web page to be viewed by everyone, especially
people with disabilities who use various assistive technologies.
Accessible Web pages take into account the special needs
of visitors with auditory, visual, mobility, and cognitive
impairments and give those users an equivalent browsing experience
to that of non-disabled visitors.
ACCOMMODATION: Academic accommodations vary depending
upon the documented needs of the individual student and are
based on the demonstration that an accommodation is reasonable
and necessary to improve the direct impact of a substantial
limitation on a major life function.
ADA (AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT): Enacted July
26, 1990. The ADA prohibits discrimination and ensures equal
opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment,
State and local government services, public accommodations,
commercial facilities, and transportation. It also mandates
the establishment of TDD/telephone relay services. The Department
of Justice enforces the ADA═s requirements in three areas
Title I: Employment practices by units of State and local
Title II: Programs, services, and activities of State and
Title III: Public accommodations and commercial facilities
ALTERNATE FORMAT: Translation of information into
a variety of accessible formats including Braille, large
print, ASCII text, audio cassette, captioning, electronic
text and more.
ALTERNATIVE KEYBOARD LAYOUT: Allows people who experience
difficulty with conventional keyboard designs to use computers.
The products available range from key guards that prevent
two keys from being pressed simultaneously, to alternative
keyboards with differing layouts, sizes, etc. for people
who have specific needs, to alternative input systems which
require other means/methods of getting information into a
ALTERNATIVE MOUSE SYSTEM: Alternative pointing devices
are used to replace the mouse. Includes trackballs and other
ALTERNATE TEXT (ALT Text): Descriptive text included
in IMG tags that appears when the mouse is held over the
image. The text should provide a concise alternative description
of the image or image map that will make sense when heard
through a screen reader.
Include ALT text in your code like this: <img src="robot-image.gif" alt="Old
NetMechanic Robot Logo!">
As defined by the Assistive Technology Act of 1998, the
term refers to "any item, piece of equipment, or product
system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized,
that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional
capabilities of individuals with disabilities."
Assistive technologies include: screen readers and magnifiers, closed
captioning, alternative keyboards, and other special software and equipment
that makes information devices more accessible. Also referred to as "Adaptive
Conditions where people are completely deaf or hard of hearing. They
require visual representations (captions or transcripts) of information
contained in audio files.
ANALOG: A signal that is received in the same form
in which it is transmitted, while the amplitude and frequency
may vary. An example is a modem, which is used to convert
the digital information in your computer to analog signals
for your phone line and vice
versa, to convert analog phone signals to digital information for your computer.
ANTENNA: The device that sends out and/or receives
signals from the satellite. Also referred to as a satellite
AMPLITUDE: The amount of variety in a signal. Commonly
thought of as the height of a wave. American Standard Code
for Information Interexchange (ASCII): A computer language
used to convert letters, numbers, and control codes into
a digital code understood by most computers.
ASYNCHRONOUS: Communication in which interaction
between parties does not take place simultaneously.
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION MODE (ATM): A method of
sending data in irregular time intervals using a code such
as ASCII. ATM allows most modern computers to communicate
with one another easily.
AUDIO BRIDGE: A device used in audio conferencing
that connects multiple telephone lines. Audio conferencing:
Voice only connection of more than two sites using standard
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BACKBONE: A primary communication
path connecting multiple users.
BANDWITH: The amount of spectrum a communication
channel (analog or digital) uses, measured in hertz (Hz).
BAND: A range of frequencies between defined upper
and lower limits.
BINARY: A computer language developed with only two
letters in its alphabet.
BIRD: The nickname for a satellite.
BIT: Abbreviation for a single binary digit.
BOBBY: Software package available for use online
or through download that evaluates Web pages for accessibility
mainly to visually impaired users. Sites that pass are entitled
to display the "Bobby Approved" icon. However,
that icon does not mean that those sites also comply with
all of Section 508's accessibility requirements. Download
Bobby at the http://bobby.watchfire.com/bobby/html/en/index.jsp
BRAILLE: is a system of touch reading and writing
for the blind, which employs embossed dots evenly arranged
in quadrangular letter spaces or cells.
BRAILLE DISPLAY: Assistive technology that raises
or lowers dot patterns based on input from an electronic
device such as a screen reader or text browser.
BYTE: A single computer word, generally eight bits.
BROADBAND: A term used to refer to high-speed communication
networks that are designed to handle bandwidth-intensive
BROADCASTING: To transmit the same information to multiple receivers
simultaneously over a satellite system, radio/TV station, data communications
network or e-mail system.
BROWSER: Software that allows you to find and see
information on the Internet.
C-BAND: Refers to the frequency in
the 3.4 GHz to 7GHZ range. Portions of this band are dedicated
to satellite communications. Satellite downlinks are 3.7
to 4.2 GHz.
CACHE: A place to store something temporarily. Web pages you request
are stored in your browser's cache directory on your hard disk. When
you return to a page you've recently viewed, the browser gets it from
the cache rather than the original server, saving you time and the network
additional traffic. You can usually vary the size of your cache, depending
on your practical browser.
CACHE SERVER: A server relatively close to Internet
users and typically within a business enterprise that saves
(caches) Web pages and possibly FTP and other files that
all users have requested. The cache server rather than the
Internet can satisfy successive requests for these pages
or files. A cache server not only gets information more quickly
but also reduces Internet traffic.
CAPTION: A text transcript of the audio portion of a video file
that synchronizes the text to the action contained in the video.
CAPTIONING TYPES: See Distance Education: Access
Guidelines for Students with Disabilities, Appendix III (Off-line
captioning, Realtime Captioning, Closed captions, Open captions,
Closed caption decoder, Roll-up and Pop-On captions, and
Captioning Service Providers)
COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS: It includes individuals with
general processing difficulties (developmental disabilities,
brain injury, etc.), people with very specific types of deficits
(short term memory, inability to remember proper names, etc.),
learning disabilities, language delays, and more.
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU): The component of a
computer in which data processing takes place.
CHANNEL: The smallest subdivision of a circuit, usually
with a path in only one direction.
CODEC (COder/DECoder): Device used to convert analog
signals to digital signals for transmission and reconvert
signals upon reception at the remote site while allowing
for the signal to be compressed for less expensive transmission.
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: A system for sending and
receiving voice, video and data electronic information.
COMPRESSION: Reducing the amount of bandwidth needed
to transmit video or audio by digitizing an analog signal,
thus increasing the ability able to load multiple services
on a satellite transponder
COMPRESSED VIDEO: When video signals are downsized
to allow travel along a smaller carrier.
COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI): Teaching process
in which a computer is utilized to enhance the learning environment
by assisting students in gaining mastery over a specific
COURSE SESSION: Used in Management Information System
reporting to indicate the separate records on a section of
a course that distinguishes when a part of the section is
scheduled at a different time, on different days, in a different
facility, or with several instruction methods.
COURSEWARE: Educational software and materials (such
as programs) for a distance education course.
CYBERSPACE: The nebulous ˝placeţ where humans interact
over computer networks. Coined by William Gibson in Neuromancer.
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DBS: Direct Broadcast Satellite.
A service that uses satellites to broadcast multiple channels
of television programming directly to small dish antennas.
DECODER: A device used to unscramble encrypted or "scrambled" television
DESKTOP VIDEOCONFERENCING: Videoconferencing on a personal computer.
DIAL-UP TELECONFERENCE: Using public telephone lines
for communications links among various locations.
DIGITAL: A quantification scheme that allows the
conversion of analog information into bits of data. Digitization
allows for signal compression and for maintaining signal
DIGITAL VIDEO INTERACTIVE DVI): A format for recording
digital video onto compact disc allowing for compression
and full motion video.
DESCRIPTIVE NARRATION: Aids blind and visually impaired
viewers with descriptive narration of key visual elements
of video programming, including descriptive information on
scenery, action, expressions/movements and costumes/props
- everything that will give the viewer a better ˝pictureţ of
what is happening.
DISTANCE EDUCATION - Instruction in which the instructor
and student are separated by distance and interact through
the assistance of communication technology.
DISTANCE EDUCATION COURSE: The delivery of instruction
and separation of the student and instructor that utilizes
one or a combination of technologies 51 percent or more of
the time is considered a Distance Education course/section/session.
DISTANCE LEARNING: The desired outcome of distance
DOWNLINK: The transmission of radio frequency signals
from a satellite to an earth station.
DOWNLOAD: Using the network to transfer files from
one computer to another.
DSL: A telecommunications line that provides
a fast, permanent connection to the Internet. DSL uses the
wiring found in almost every home and office. Special hardware
attached at both ends of the line allows data to transmit
at a far greater speed than standard telephone wiring can.
EARTH STATION: A ground-based
antenna and associated equipment used to receive and/or transmit
telecommunications signals via satellite.
ECHO CANCELLATION: The process of eliminating the
acoustic echo in a videoconferencing room.
ELECTRONIC MAIL (E-mail): Sending messages from one
computer user to another.
FACSIMILE (FAX): System used
to transmit textual or graphical images over standard telephone
FCC: Federal Communications Commission. The U.S.
federal regulatory agency responsible for the regulation
of interstate and international communications by radio,
television, wire, satellite, and cable.
FEEDS: Device mounted at the focal point of the antenna
that gathers signals reflected from the dish. Also a television
FIBER OPTIC CABLE: Glass fiber that is used for laser
transmission of video, audio, and/or data.
FIFTY-ONE (51%) RULE: A course/section or session
is defined as DE if technology is used 51 percent or more
of the time required to deliver instruction during the course
term and where the student and instructor are separated by
FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP): A protocol that allows
you to move files from a distant computer to a local computer
using a network like the Internet.
FIREWALL - A specially programmed computer
system that "stands" between an organization's
LAN and the Internet. It is a security measure used by many
companies to prevent hackers and other unauthorized users
from accessing internal networks. The firewall computer is
set up to monitor traffic and to keep unauthorized crackers
from tampering with the system, thereby protecting a private
network from a public network. Firewalls are also set up
to protect the security of servers.
FOOTPRINT: The coverage area of the earth's surface
within which the signals of a specific satellite can be received.
FREQUENCY: The rate at which a signal (e.g. electrical
current) alternates. The standard unit of frequency is the
hertz, abbreviated Hz. If a signal completes one cycle per
second, then the frequency is 1 Hz; 60 cycles per second
equals 60 Hz.
Hz: Hertz. The name of the basic measure
of frequency with which an electromagnetic wave completes
a full cycle from its positive to its negative pole and back
again. Each unit is equal to one cycle per second.
KHz: Kilohertz. Refers to a unit of frequency equal to 1,000
MHz: Megahertz. Refers to a frequency equal to one million Hertz.
GHz: Gigahertz. Refers to a frequency equal to one billion Hertz.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ): A collection of information on the basics
of any given subject, often used on the WWW.
FULLY INTERACTIVE: > A variety of distance education
in which the technology employed provides an immediate opportunity
for exchange between participants.
FULL MOTION VIDEO: Signal which allows transmission
of complete action taking place at the origination site.
FULLY INTERACTIVE VIDEO: (Two way interactive video)
Two sites interact with audio and video as if they were co-located.
GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT: An orbit 22,300
miles above the earth's equator where satellites circle at
the same rate as the earth's rotation.
GMT: Greenwich Mean Time. The time zone that includes Greenwich, England
is bisected by zero degrees longitude. This is the time notation that is used
for booking international satellite time.
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HEADEND: Location where cable television
systems collect and distribute satellite programming.
HOME PAGE: A document with an address (URL) on the
world wide web maintained by a person or organization which
contains pointers to other pieces of information.
HOST: A network computer that can receive information
from other computers.
HYBRID COURSE: A course
utilizing more than one mode of instructional delivery. Instruction
may be delivered by such modes as, the internet,
email, video, audio and face to face meetings.
HYBRID SATELLITE: A satellite that carries two or
more different communications payloads (i.e. C-band and Ku-band).
HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML): The code used
to create a home page and is used to access documents over
HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP): The protocol
used to signify an Internet site is a WWW site, i.e. HTTP
is a WWW address.
HYPERTEXT: A document which has been marked up to
allow a user to select words or pictures within the document,
click on them, and connect to further information.
INCLINED ORBIT: A condition that
occurs when a satellite is no longer station-kept in the
north-south plain. A satellite operator might do so to extend
the life of a satellite because fuel will only be used to
perform station-keeping in the east-west plain. The inclination
happens gradually over time, and once it becomes excessive,
the satellite is de-orbited.
INDEPENDENT STUDY: A broad category of courses for
which state reimbursement is based upon number of units of
credit rather than amount of student attendance. For apportionment
purposes, distance education is one variety of independent
INTERACTION: A back-and-forth dialog, using communication
technology, between the user and the system.
INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FIXED SERVICE (ITFS): Microwave-based,
high-frequency television used in educational program delivery.
INTERACTIVE MEDIA: Frequency assignment that allows
for a two-way interaction or exchange of information.
INTERNET: The most important technological
innovation of our generation, the Internet is actually a
network of networks.
designed by the U.S. Department of Defense so that a communication
signal could withstand nuclear war and serve military institutions
worldwide, the Internet was first known as the ARPANet, the
most robust communication technology. It is a system of linked
computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates
data transfer and communication services, such as remote
login, file transfer (FTP), electronic mail (e-mail), newsgroups,
and the World Wide Web. The Internet greatly extends the
reach of each connected computer network.
ITFS – Instructional Television Fixed
Service (microwave transmission) – Microwave-based, high-frequency
television used in educational program delivery. FCC Regulations
ISDN: Integrated services digital network. A standard
for the integrated transmission of voice, video, and data
developed by the Consultative Committee on International
Telephony and Telegraphy (CCITT).
JPEG: Joint pictures expert group.
A subgroup of ISO, which has established international standards
for the digital compression of still pictures.
Ka-BAND: Primarily used in satellites operating at
30Ghz uplink and 20 GHz downlink and is intended in support
of future applications such as mobile voice. A portion of
the RF spectrum located between 18 GHz and 31 GHz.
Ku-BAND: Refers to the frequency in the 12 GHz to
14 GHz range used in support of such applications as broadcast
TV, DBS, and direct-to-home television.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK - LAN: A network that connects
computers in a relatively small, predetermined area (such as a room,
a set of
be connected to each other over telephone lines and radio waves. Workstations
and personal computers in an office are commonly connected in a LAN.
This allows individual users to send or receive files and to share
access to files and data. Each computer connected to a LAN is called
LARGE PRINT: Large print text is oversized
print intended for use by the visually impaired.
LEARNING OBJECT: Any digital
resource that can be reused to support learning. (David
Wiley). Learning objects
are used to
but are not
animations, tutorials, text entries, Web sites, bibliographies, audio and video
clips, quizzes, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, graphs, maps, charts, and
assessments. They vary in size, scope, and level of granularity ranging from
a small chunk of instruction to a series of resources combined to provide a more
complex learning experience.
LNB: Low noise lookdown.
An electronic part of a satellite earth station that is used
the signal collected by the reflector and the feedhorn.
LISTSERV: An e-mail program that allows multiple computer users to connect
onto a single system, creating an on-line discussion.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN): Two or more local computers
that are physically connected.
MAGPie: Media Access Generator. Tool
that allows Web authors to add captions to three multimedia
formats: Apple's QuickTime, the World Wide Web Consortium's
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) and Microsoft's
Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange (SAMI) format.
MAGpie can also integrate audio descriptions into SMIL presentations.
MCPC: Multi-channel per carrier. A signal comprised
of multiple digital streams that are multiplexed into a single
stream, which is then transmitted on single carrier. This
is typically used combine multiple CDV signal into one.
MICROWAVE: Electromagnetic waves that travel in a
straight line and are used to and from satellites and for
short distances (i.e., up to 30 miles).
MOBILITY IMPAIRMENTS: Physical impairments limit
movement and fine motor controls like walking, lifting, or
using a mouse or keyboard. People with physical impairments
often require adaptive or assistive technologies to use computers
or navigate through Web sites
MODEM: A piece of equipment to allow computers to
interact with each other via telephone lines by converting
digital signals to analog for transmission along analog lines.
MOSAIC: An example of browser software that allows
MPEG: MPEG the Moving Picture Experts Group, develops
standards for digital video and digital audio compression.
It operates under the auspices of the International Organization
for Standardization. The MPEG standards are evolving, each
designed for a different purpose.
MULTIMEDIA: Any document which uses multiple forms
of communication, such as text, audio, and/or video.
MULTI-POINT CONTROL UNIT (MCU): Computerized switching
system which allows point-to-multipoint videoconferencing.
NAB: National Association of Broadcasters.
A U.S.-based organization that fosters and promotes radio
and television broadcasting. PanAmSat has a booth at the
NAB trade show held once a year in Las Vegas.
NETSCAPE: An example of browser software that allows
you to design a home page and to browse links on the WWW.
NETWORK: A series of points connected by communication
channels in different locations.
NON-TEXT EQUIVALENT: Content provided through audio
files, sign language, or other visual means to convey information
to people with visual or cognitive disabilities.
ON-LINE: Active and
prepared for operation. Also suggests access to a computer
ORIGINATION SITE: The location from which a teleconference
PAYLOAD: Supports the primary mission of the satellite,
the receipt and transmission of signals, and comprises systems
that include receivers, multiplexers, high-powered amplifiers
and signal processing.
POINT OF PRESENCE (POP): Point of connection between
an interexchange carrier and a local carrier to pass communications
into the network.
POINT-TO-POINT: Transmission between two locations.
POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT: Transmission between multiple
locations using a bridge.
POLARIZATION: The orientation of a transmitted/received
signal. Signals can have circular or linear polarization.
PPP: A software package which allows a user to have
a direct connection to the Internet over a telephone line.
PROTOCOL: A formal set of standards, rules, or formats
for exchanging data that assures uniformity between computers
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REAL TIME: An electronic operation
that is performed in the same timeframe as its real-world
counterpart. For example, real time video transmission.
REAL TIME TRANSCRIPTION: Transcribers attend class
and write the spoken word on a steno machine. This process
instantly creates English text so that one or more hearing
impaired students may not only see what is being said, but
non-oral students can utilize the keyboard to ask questions.
SATELLITE TV: Video and audio relay
station that orbits the earth. A complete satellite communications
system also includes earth stations that communicate with each other via the
satellite. The satellite receives a signal transmitted by an originating earth
station and retransmits that signal to the destination earth station(s). Satellites
are used to transmit telephone, television and data signals originated by common
carriers, broadcasters and distributors of cable TV program material.
SCPC: Single Channel Per Carrier. A scheme in which
only one signal is loaded on a carrier.
SCREEN MAGNIFIER: Software program that magnifies
all or part of a computer screen to make the content visible
to users with visual impairments.
SCREEN READER: Software that reads the content of
a computer screen aloud. Screen readers can only interpret
text content, so all graphic and multimedia must have alternative
text descriptions using ALT text, captions, transcripts,
or other methods.
SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCOL (SLIP) : Allows a user
to connect to the Internet directly over a high speed modem.
SERVER: A computer with a special service function
on a network, generally receiving and connecting incoming
SIMPLEX OPERATION: Transmissions sent in only one
direction of a telecommunications channel.
SLOW SCAN CONVERTER: Transmitter/receiver of still
video over narrow band channels. In real time, camera subjects
must remain still for highest resolution.
SPACE SEGMENT: A term that describes the portion
of the total communications satellite system that is physically
located in orbit around the earth.
SPECTRUM: The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in transmission
of voice, data and television.
STREAMING: Streaming video is a sequence of "moving
images" that are sent in compressed form over the Internet
and displayed by the viewer as they arrive. Streaming media
is streaming video with sound. With streaming video or streaming
media, a Web user does not have to wait to download a large
file before seeing the video or hearing the sound. Instead,
the media is sent in a continuous stream and is played as
it arrives. The user needs a player, a special program that
uncompresses and sends video data to the display and audio
data to speakers. A player can be either an integral part
of a browser or downloaded from the software maker's Web
SYNCHRONOUS: Communication in which interaction between
participants is simultaneous.
SUN OUTAGE: When the sun passes behind a satellite
in relation to the earth, and the sun's energy momentarily
interferes with the satellite signals. Occurs two times each
year during spring and fall equinox.
T-1: Refers to bit rate of 1.544
million b/s for the United States. The European E-1 transmission
bit rate is 2.048 Mb/s.
T-3 (DS-3): A digital channel which communicates
at a significantly faster rate than T-1.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS: The science of information transport
using wire, radio, optical, or electromagnetic channels to
transmit receive signals for voice or data communications
using electrical means.
TELECONFERENCING: Two way electronic communication
between two or more groups in separate locations via audio,
video, and/or computer systems.
TELECOURSE: A video-based course which uses a fully
integrated package of video instruction combined with instructional
support materials (for example, a textbook, a student study
guide, and a faculty resource guide). Telecourses are delivered
in a variety of ways, including television broadcast.
TELEPHONE RELAY SERVICE: Telephone Relay Services
(TRS) link people using a standard (voice) telephone with
people using a device called either a Text Telephone (TTY)
or Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD). This device
generally consists of a keyboard and display screen. Calls
are routed through a communications operator who has both
sets of equipment and who acts as the intermediary between
TELEPORT: Technical ground facility used for satellite
communications. PanAmSat operates six domestic teleports:
Atlanta, GA; Napa, CA; Fillmore, CA; Long Beach, CA; Castle
Rock, CO; Homestead, FL; and Spring Creek, NY.
TELEWEB: A course which merges a telecourse (see above) with the internet,
providing the addition of online content, instructional/learning activities,
resource links, and instructor and student interaction.
TEXT EQUIVALENT: Text content that describes information
on the screen that's contained in graphic, Flash, or other
multimedia files. Text equivalent is often provided using
captions, ALT text, or transcripts. The alternate text must
convey the same function or purpose for the user with a disability
as the non-text content does for others.
TEXT SPEECH SOFTWARE: Text-to-Speech software is
used to convert words from a computer document (e.g. word
processor document, web page) into audible speech spoken
through the computer speaker. This differs from screen reader
technology because it doesn't read any system information
or alternative text descriptions.
TEXT TRANSCRIPT: A text description of information
contained in audio files.
TTY: Most deaf people use a device called a TTY (also
known as a TDD), which is a simple keyboard that connects
to a telephone, often through an acoustic coupler. When two
people communicate via TTY, each sees what the other is typing.
TRACKING: An earth station feature that allows for
tracking inclined satellites.
TRANSMISSION COUNTROL PROTOCOL (TCP): A protocol
which makes sure that packets of data are shipped and received
in the intended order.
TRANSPONDER: A radio frequency path through a satellite
with a specific bandwidth, uplink/downlink frequency and
beam. Transponders can be sold in whole or can be segmented
into smaller pieces of bandwidth.
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VIDEO STREAMING- Also known as "streaming
media," it is the transmission of a media clip, over
a network, so that it begins playing back as quickly as possible.
Streaming is an Internet data transfer technique that allows
users to see video and hear audio files without lengthy download
VIDEO TELECONFERENCING: A teleconference
including two-way video.
VIRTUAL EQUIVALENT: A mediated technology course
that is regularly or irregularly scheduled and meets the
criteria for section 58003.1 (a) (b) (c) can be considered
comparable to a classroom-based course.
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT: Refers to conditions where people
are blind, color blind, or have reduced vision capabilities.
Often, these people will use assistive technologies like
screen readers or magnifiers to help them use computers and
navigate through Web sites.
VOICE RECOGNITION: Voice or speech recognition is
the ability of a machine or program to receive and interpret
dictation, or to understand and carry out spoken commands.
UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL): The address of a
homepage on the WWW.
UNIVERSAL DESIGN: Universal design is the design
of products and environments to be usable by all people,
to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation
or specialized design.
USABILITY: Refers to design features that make a
product user friendly for the broadest number of users. For
instance, Web sites with usability problems could be hard
to navigate, difficult for disabled people to use, or have
unclear instructions for use.
UPLINK: The transmission of radio frequency signals
to a satellite from an earth station.
WAI: Web Accessibility Initiative,
affiliated with the World Wide Web Consortium. Coordinates
with organizations around the world to increase the accessibility
of the Web through five primary areas of work: technology,
guidelines, tools, education and outreach, and research and
development. The developer of web content accessibility guidelines. http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/
World Wide Web (WWW): A graphical hypertext-based
Internet tool that provides access to homepages created by
individuals, businesses, and other organizations.
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